What is Incorporation and How Does It Work?

One of the first decisions you have to make in creating an incorporation is the type of business you want to create. A sole proprietorship? A corporation? A limited liability company? This decision is important because the type of business you create determines the types of applications you will need to submit. You should also research liability implications for personal investments you make into your business, as well as the taxes you will need to pay. It is important to understand each business type and select the one that is best suited for your situation and objectives. Keep in mind that you may need to contact several federal agencies, as well as your state business entity registration office.

The first step in understanding how businesses can be set up comes with knowing that, even though they may all seem similar from the outside, not all businesses are structured identically. Even within the same industry, some owners might opt for one setup while another owner will decide that a different type of arrangement is more suitable. It all depends on the individual needs, preferences, and requirements of the potential business and the business owner. This article will give you a glimpse of how an Incorporation works and how a business owner can use this model to further his or her ventures.

How does Incorporation Work?

A business becomes incorporated when the company’s organizers file incorporation paperwork with the state. For example, corporations in Texas must file a certificate of formation with the Texas Secretary of State’s office, as a condition of its formation. Incorporating a business requires activities, such as selecting individuals to serve as directors, and creating a unique business name. In most cases, a fill-in the blank certificate of formation, also known as articles of incorporation, will be provided by the Secretary of State’s office where the corporation is organized. The fee to file a certificate of formation will vary from state to state.

When a business becomes incorporated, a separate and distinct legal entity is created. An incorporated business acts independently of its business owners. According to the Entrepreneur website, incorporating a business provides the company with most of the legal rights granted to an individual, with the exception of voting privileges. Incorporated businesses must hold shareholder and director meetings, and keep company minutes, as described on the Companies Incorporated website. In addition, corporations must keep accurate banking records that are separate from the personal funds of its owners. Furthermore, an incorporated business must file taxes and annual reports with the state where the company is organized. This new business entity – corporation or limited liability company (LLC) – transforms the way the business is seen through the eyes of the law and often has more credibility with potential customers, vendors, and employees.

When it comes to business taxes, owners of an incorporated business may pay taxes twice on the same corporate dollars, also known as double taxation. This occurs when the company pays business taxes on its earnings. If dividends are issued to shareholders of the corporation, the shareholder pays taxes on those dividends at their individual tax bracket. Dividends issued to shareholders of a corporation aren’t deductible and don’t reduce the corporation’s tax liability. Lastly, for company Stocks, unlike a sole proprietorship or a partnership, an incorporated business has the ability to issue stock to employees and investors. Corporations with unissued shares of stock can sell shares to raise money for the company. Because an incorporated business has limited liability protection, investors may be more likely to invest in a corporation in comparison to a sole proprietorship or partnership. Employee stock incentives may be used to attract talented individuals to work for the corporation.

In any case that the venture hits some financial hurdles, corporations normally file one of two different types of bankruptcy – Chapter 7 or Chapter 11. Alternatively, corporate creditors may force a corporation into bankruptcy. When a corporation enters Chapter 7 bankruptcy, the bankruptcy court appoints a trustee to oversee the liquidation of corporate assets. Assets are then distributed to external creditors according to their priority and the amount that they are owed. Shareholders are the lowest priority unless, for example, the corporation borrowed money from a shareholder. Unlike an individual debtor, the corporation receives no discharge of debt – it simply dissolves and ceases to exist after its assets are liquidated and distributed. On the other hand, when a corporation enters Chapter 11 bankruptcy, corporate representatives negotiate with a creditor’s committee for favorable payment terms, reduced interest rates and, sometimes, a reduction in the principal balance of its debts. The corporation must usually pay its outstanding debts within five years. Both the creditors and the corporation may submit payment plans to the bankruptcy court, but the court must approve it. Once the corporation complies with the settlement, it receives a discharge of any remaining debt.

The Incorporation Doctrine

The incorporation doctrine is a constitutional doctrine through which selected provisions of the Bill of Rights are made applicable to the states through the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, the Legal Information Institute explains. This means that state governments are held to the same standards as the Federal Government regarding certain constitutional rights. The Supreme Court could have used the Privileges and Immunities Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to apply the Bill of Rights to the states. However, in the Slaughter-House Cases 83 US 36, the Supreme Court held that the Privileges and Immunities clause of the Fourteenth Amendment placed no restriction on the police powers of the state and it was intended to apply only to privileges and immunities of citizens of the United States and not the privileges and immunities of citizens of the individual states. This decision effectively put state laws beyond the review of the Supreme Court. To circumvent this, the Supreme Court began a process dubbed as “selective incorporation” by gradually applying selected provisions of the Bill of Rights to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment Due Process clause.

Selective and Offshore Incorporation

To give you a breakdown on what “selective incorporation,” it is a constitutional doctrine that ensures states cannot enact laws that take away the constitutional rights of American citizens that are enshrined in the Bill of Rights. Selective incorporation is not a law but has been established over time through court cases and rulings by the United States Supreme Court. In actuality, selective incorporation is the process that has evolved over the years, through court cases and rulings, used by the United States Supreme Court to ensure that the rights of the people are not violated by state laws or procedures. Moreover, according to Law Teacher, it does not consider all rights in the Bill of Rights fundamental not all rights in the Bill of Rights and some rights outside the Bill of Rights are fundamental. This approach rejects the totality of circumstances to decide whether phases of rights or particular portions of Instead if a right was fundamental, drafters incorporated it into the Fourteenth Amendment through the Due Process Clause and deemed applicable to the states and the federal government. At its heart, selective incorporation is about the ability of the federal government to limit the states’ lawmaking powers.

Meanwhile, Offshore incorporation is a corporation or limited liability company that has been formed outside of your country of residence. One is well advised to choose the country of incorporation wisely. The great thing, however, about having an offshore corporation company that has been established properly is that it will give you, the owner financial confidentiality. If one has an offshore bank account in one’s own name, the name of the account holder is easy to trace. Many people who have an offshore corporation have several companies. Having more than one offshore company allows funds to be transferred between companies that are free from government reporting. There is usually a significant reduction in paperwork because there may be no requirements by the government to report transfers of money between one foreign account and another.

Filing Articles of Incorporation

Starting your own business is a big step, and the legal issues involved can be confusing.  Thinking of a business idea is hard enough, but then there are forms to fill out and technicalities to deal with, especially if you’re structuring your company as a corporation. Here’s what you need to know about one of the first and most important steps of incorporating your business: filing your articles of incorporation.

The articles of incorporation sometimes called a certification of formation or a charter, is a set of documents filed with a government body to legally document the creation of a corporation. This type of document contains general information about the corporation, such as the business’s name and location.

Articles of incorporation can easily be confused with bylaws, which lay out the rules and regulations that govern a corporation and help establish the roles and duties of the company’s directors and officers. Articles of incorporation are also sometimes called a certification of formation or a charter. The articles of incorporation contain general information about a corporation, such as the name and location of the business. Bylaws, on the other hand, contain information about the rules and regulations that govern a corporation. In addition, corporate bylaws help to establish the roles and duties of the company’s directors and officers.

 Forms and Legal Documents

 The first step in the process is structuring a business as a corporation. The specific documents vary by state, but each will include a number of questions about the business and its owners. The forms are easily found online but don’t be alarmed if they are called something other than articles of incorporation.

Despite a state-by-state filing, the forms will all ask pretty much the same questions and will be in a fill-in-the-blank format. The most crucial information that is required will be corporate name, recipient of all legal notices and official mailings, the purpose of the business, the duration of the business, the incorporator, the directors, how many shares of stock can be issued, and how many classes of stock the corporation will be allowed to issue.

Articles of incorporation must be submitted to the secretary or department of state in order to establish a company as a corporate entity. Depending on the state of incorporation, articles of incorporation may be submitted in person to the secretary or department of state’s office, by mail or electronically to the secretary or department of state website. A corporation is not required to file the company’s bylaws with any government agency. Instead, corporations are required to maintain their bylaws at the company’s primary business location. Corporate bylaws are an internal document, establishing operating procedures for a corporation.

Legally, the answer is no. In fact, over 70 percent of U.S. businesses are owned by sole proprietors and operate successfully without incorporating. However, if you need liability protection to protect personal assets if a client sues you, potential tax savings (at a price), or a loan to grow your business in the future, then incorporation might benefit you.

Typically, if you only operate in one state, you should incorporate in that state. If you operate in multiple states, you should determine which state is the friendliest to corporations and incorporate in that state.  File your articles of incorporation in the state where you intend to incorporate – usually with the Secretary of State’s office and for a fee, depending on where you live. Check your state website for more information.

The primary benefit to business incorporation is limited liability. When you own a small business, you will invest a lot of money into not only getting it launched but in keeping it running smoothly as well. As the owner, you are responsible for any debts and losses your business may accumulate along the way. However, when you incorporate, you are typically only held responsible for the amount of money you personally invest. Your personal assets typically cannot be used to satisfy the debts and liabilities of your business.